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ENC 1101 - Prof. Geerling - Believe It or Not?

Fall 2023

In-Text Citations

1 Author

(Harwell, 2018)

2 Authors

(McCauley & Christiansen, 2019)

3 Authors (or more)

(Kalnay et al., 1996)

Government/Organizational Author

(U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017)

Government/Organizational Author (no publication date)

(U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, n.d.)

Website (no publication date)

(National Conference of State Legislatures, n.d.)

No Author - Article

("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018)

1 Author

Harwell (2018) illustrates...

2 Authors

McCauley and Christiansen (2019) specified...

3 Authors (or more)

Kalney et al. (1996) states...

Government/Organizational Author

U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2017) indicates...

Government/Organizational Author (no publication date)

U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (n.d.) indicates...

Website (no publication date)

The National Conference of State Legislatures (n.d.) directed...

No Author - Article

"Understanding Sensory Memory" (2018) reports...


According to the APA, a paraphrase restates another’s idea in your own words. Paraphrasing allows you to summarize and synthesize information from one or more sources. Students should paraphrase their sources most of the time, rather than directly quoting the sources.

Example of paraphrasing:

Webster-Stratton (2016) described a case example of a 4-year-old girl who showed an insecure attachment to her mother; in working with the family dyad, the therapist focused on increasing the mother’s empathy for her child.


According to the APA, a direct quotation reproduces words verbatim from another work. It is best to paraphrase sources rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style.

Example quotation (fewer than 40 words)

Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470).

Example quotation (more than 40 words; block quote):

Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)