A UTI is an infection in the urinary tract. Infections are caused by microbes—organisms too small to be seen without a microscope. Bacteria are the most common cause of UTIs. Normally, bacteria that enter the urinary tract are quickly removed by the body before they cause symptoms. But sometimes bacteria overcome the body’s natural defenses and cause infection.
Epispadias is a rare defect that is present at birth (congenital). It is located at the opening of the urethra. In this condition, the urethra does not develop into a full tube. The urine exits the body from the wrong place.
Phimosis is inability to withdraw the narrowed penile foreskin or prepuce behind the glans penis. It is a not so uncommon complaint for which a child is brought to office of pediatrician. Parents are often overtly anxious and over-concerned about this nonretractability in their infant or toddler. Most of these cases end up in surgical interventions in form of circumcision.
Enuresis, or bedwetting, is very common. Many children wet the bed until they are 5 or even older. A child's bladder might be too small. Or the amount of urine produced overnight can be more than the bladder can hold. Some children sleep too deeply or take longer to learn bladder control.
Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a disorder passed down through families in which a baby develops protein in the urine and swelling of the body. Congenital means it is present from birth. However, this group of disorders also includes nephrotic syndrome that occurs in the first 3 months of life.
Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects children, but can happen in adults. Having certain genetic conditions or birth defects can increase the risk of getting it. Children that are at risk should be screened for Wilms' tumor every three months until they turn eight.
Vesicoureteral reflux is the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder to the upper urinary tract. Vesicoureteral reflux is more common in infants and young children, but older children and even adults can be affected. About 10 percent of children have VUR.