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Prof. Fletcher-APA 7 Tips


Online Article with DOI


Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages–pages.
Lapointe, B. E., Brewton, R. A., Herren, L. W., Porter, J. W., Hu, C., & Cannizzaro, J. P. (2020). Sound science, not politics,
    must inform restoration of Florida Bay and the coral reefs of the Florida Keys. Marine Biology167(5). 1-
Parenthetical citation: (Lapointe et al., 2020) 
Narrative citation: Lapointe et al. (2020) 


Same Author, with the Same Date:

If you have two or more distinct works by the same author and published in the same year, differentiate them with letters. Organize these references by the title element.
The two Smith references need to be differentiated with letters behind their dates in the order they appear in the list. You will need to do this manually. 
Example (red color and bolding are there only so you can see them better):
Anderson, R. (2012). Chickens, dogs and frogs on your farm. Wetterling Brothers.
Smith, J. (2010a). Chickens rule, dogs drool. Willemssen Publishing.
Smith, J. (2010b). Frogs are better than toads. Hirning Publishing.
Zuber, K. (2011). Toads versus frogs. Rasmussen House Publishers.
  • Matching in-text citations for the body your paper will be: (Smith, 2010a)  and (Smith, 2010b)
  • If you have no date, add a hyphen before the a and b, like this: (Smith, n.d. -a) and (Smith, n.d. -b)


List authors in the order they appear on the source. A comma should separate each author's name, and an ampersand (&) should precede the last author's name. Spell out up to twenty authors' names in the reference list in this format:

Two Authors:

Smith, J., & Miller, W. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages–pages.
Parenthetical citation: (Smith & Miller, 2009)
Narrative citation:  Smith and Miller (2009)

Three to Twenty Authors:

List all authors in the reference 
Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., & Doe, J.(Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages–pages.
Parenthetical citation (Smith et al., 2009) 
Narrative citation: Smith et al. (2009) 

21+ Authors:

Include the first 19 authors in the reference, then three ellipsis points (. . .), and then the last author (there is no ampersand). In the in-text citation, only include the first author and add et al.
Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J., Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L.,
     Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K., Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. ... Zhang,
     Z. Z. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages–pages.
Parenthetical citation: (Smith et al., 2009) 
Narrative citation: Smith et al. (2009) 

  • Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the organization.

  • (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available, but may be only the year. If there is no date use (n.d.).

  • Title of page or section. Note: Italicize the title of the page.

  • Source. Note: If the source is different from the author as organization, list it here.

  • URL


National Ocean Service. (n.d.). Is sea level rising? National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). About NOAA weather

Format of Group Author Names (Publication Manual (7th ed.) Sections 9.7–9.11)

  • When multiple government agencies are listed on a work, use the most specific agency as the author. Include the broader bureau or department of which the agency is a part in the source.


National Institute of Nursing Research. (2015). A family’s perspective: Pediatric palliative care stories (NIH Publication No.

15-NR-8018). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

If the interview was published in a retrievable source (e.g. a website, journalnewspaper, or book), follow the usual citation format for that type of source.


National Bureau of Asian Research. (2013, August 12). India's water crisis causes and cures: Interview  with Kirit S.


Newspaper Article (pp. 200-201)
General Format
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
(Author Surname, Year)
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(Author Surname, Year, page number)
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper Title, page range. URL 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Wallace, 2007)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Wallace, 2007, p. A8)


Wallace, K. (2007, December 4). Passport applicant finds massive privacy breach. The Globe and Mail, pp. A1, A8.

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Mettler, 2019) 

In-Text Citation (Quotation:

(Mettler, 2019)


Mettler, K. (2019, February 25). An iceberg twice the size of New York City is about to break off of Antarctica. The Washington Post.

Reference examples

  • Image on a website with a government agency group author
Agency or Group Author(s). (Year image was created).Title of work [Type of work]. Title of the Website. URL address of  website
  • Image on a website with an individual author
Author, B. B.(Year image was created).Title of work [Type of work]. Title of the Website. URL address of website
Doug, K. (n.d.). Fish swimming over the monitor [Photograph]. NOAA Photo Library.


  • Image on a website with No Author
Archaeologist examining the area under the monitor's armor belt [Photograph]. (n.d.). NOAA Photo Library.

Order of work with the same author and same date APA 7 p.305

  • The letter format for references with years is 2020a, 2020b
  • The letter format with references with no date is (n.d.-a), (n.d.-b)

  • The references are alphabetized by title of the image to determine which is “a” and which is “b.”


Natural Resources Conservation Service. (NRCS). (n.d.-a). Demopolis soil [Image]. United States Department of

     Agriculture. https://www.nrcs.usda.go/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/office/ssr7/profile/?cid=nrcs142p2_047960

Natural Resources Conservation Service. (NRCS). (n.d.-b). Soil profile gallery [Image]. United States Department of


       example in text-citation of soil images

How to cite an article from Natural Resources Conservation Service website


Thorson, T., McGrath, C., & Magenheimer, S. (2011). Jory soil selected as Oregon’s official state soil. Natural Resources

     Conservation Service

How to cite an image from Natural Resources Conservation Service website

Chip, C. (Smithsonian). (2006). Bama [Photograph]. Natural Resources Conservation Service.



Fein, J. S. (2019). Monsoon meteorology. In AccessScience. McGraw-Hill Education.