Skip to main content

Chicago Manual of Style Quick Reference Guide: About Chicago Manual of Style

This is a reference guide to the Chicago Citation Style, for complete guidelines please refer to the The Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition.

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Ed)

Chicago Style: Who uses it?

     It is used most often in history and economics as well as some social sciences that use a modified form such as anthropology.

      It provides writers and students with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages.

About the Chicago Manual of Style

     The Chicago Manual of Style was first published in 1906 under the title Manual of Style. It was one of the first guides created to standardize American English manuscript formats for publication. The manual provides guidelines on multiple aspects of creating a polished finished manuscript and is credited with leading the way in standardizing citation style in the bibliography.

     Chicago Manual of Style has guidelines for two permitable citation formats author-date and notes-bibliography systems of citation. Choosing from each depends on on subject matter and the nature of sources cited. Be sure to check with your Professor on his/her preference.

Why do I need to Cite

Learning how to cite may seem like a daunting task. You may be wondering why is it necessary to do so. Excellent reasons:

  1. Avoid plagiarism and thereby
  2. Show academic honesty and courtesy for the work of others.
  3. Allows the reader to learn more about the topic.
  4. Build credibility to your work as you are citing experts to fuel your arguments.
  5. Allows other to conduct further research based on your work.

Whether you choose to add a direct quotation to your paper or merely paraphrase someone else's idea, you must cite any work that did not come from you.  That includes but is not limited to text, images, computer code and charts.

Remember when in doubt, cite it!

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of citing it is very important that you understand what each of the following refers to when it comes to citations.

Article: This is a document written in a periodical (magazine, newspaper or journal).

Book: These include print books such as reference books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and also ebooks (electronic books). Be aware there is a significant difference in how you cite an ebook from a print book.

Electronic Source: information obtained in electronic format (i.e. ebooks, online journals).

Endnote: a note, as of explanation, emendation, or the like, added at the end  of an article, chapter. 

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): refers to a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a journal article, book, book chapter, or reference entry. The DOI number is used to help track and identify individual documents. It is similar to the function of IBSN for a book.

Footnote: an explanatory or documenting note or comment at the bottom of a page, referring to a specific part of the text on the page.

In-Text Citation:this is shortened version of the citations used in the body of a paper.

Journal: a periodical that is published by a trade, discipline or interest group that can be popular or scholarly in nature.

Magazine: periodical containing miscellaneous pieces of information (as articles, stories, poems) usually through a subscription.

Media: this is information obtained through means such as television, radio, film, video, and photography.

Monograph: refers to a scholarly piece of writing. It can be either an essay or book length on a specific, often limited subject by a single writer

Peer-Reviewed Journals: in order for  journals use to ensure the articles they publish represent the best scholarship currently available articles are sent out to other scholars in the same field to get their opinion on the quality of the information to be published.

Primary Source: this is information collected firsthand from such sources as historical documents, literary texts, artistic works, experiments, surveys, and interviews.

Print Source: Physical copy of a journal or book.

Reference List: this a list of full citations of the sources used to research a paper. They are listed in alphabetical order.

Secondary Source: a second-hand account of something such as a quotation in a literature review.

Scholarly Articles : refers to something that is published in a academic journal or on a scholarly website. These are articles written by experts in these fields.