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BC Online: BAS Program

What is Paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing allows you to share someone else's work by restating it in your own words. It offers a shortened interpretation of the original passage, while acknowledging the original source. When citing paraphrased material, APA recommends using the author-date method (last name of the author and date of publication).
Citing Paraphrased Information
  • In-text: the citation is integrated into the sentence or paragraph
According to Cash and McDaniel (2008), parents and therapists agree that video games are not harmful as long as children are playing age-appropriate games.


  • Parenthetical: the citation appears at the end of the sentence
Parents and therapists agree that video games are not harmful as long as children are playing age-appropriate games (Cash & McDaniel, 2008).

Citing in-text when an author isn't identified...

If there is no obvious person as an author, use the name of the organization or government agency. When no author can be identified, use the title of the article or Web page.

In-Text: American Association of Critical Care Nurses (2011).

Parenthetical: (American Association of Critical Care Nurses, 2011)

Title (when no author can be identified): ("First Few Words of Title," n.d.)

Citing Short Direct Quotations

When quoting a statement word for word from an author's original work, this is called a direct quote. The phrase is identified by placing quotation marks before and after it, and a page number is included.
There are very few counselors who "declare gaming as a specialty" (Cash & McDaniel, 2008, p. 42).
What if the quote doesn't have a page number?
When using a quote from a work that doesn't have page numbers e.g. a website, use the abbreviation para. and count the paragraphs to determine the approximate location the quote can be found.


Students found that “attending the APA boot camp workshop builds confidence when completing written assignments" (Davis & Russell, 2011, para. 6).

Citing Long Direct Quotations

When quoting a statement that is 40 words or more, this is considered a block quotation and should be formatted according to the following rules:
  • Start the quote on a new line
  • Indent the entire quote by ten spaces (two tabs)
  • Do not use quotation marks
  • Double-space the entire quote (just like the rest of the paper)
  • If your quote contains a quote, use double quotation marks (" ") around the original quote


Chickering and Gamson (as cited in Gabriel, 2008) reported

frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students' intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own value and future plans. (p. 45)