Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and parenthetical citations–reference list style (or reference list style).
These styles are very similar as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.
Curious about who Kate was and how she developed a citation style? Learn more about on the University of Chicago Press site.
Why do I need to use Turabian?
Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) and Turabian Style citations differ in the numbering of their notes.
In Turabian Style citations, a superscript 1 is used for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.
In CMOS citations, the in-text numbering is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period. Within the footnote, it is the number followed by a period.
Turabian synthesizes the rules most important for student papers and other scholarly research not intended for publication, and omits some of the publishing details and options that CMOS provides.