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Turabian Citation Style Quick Reference Guide : About Turabian

This is a quick reference guide to this citation style. For the complete guidelines please see the Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian

The Turabian Style Manual

About Turabian Style

Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and parenthetical citations–reference list style (or reference list style).

These styles are very similar as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.

Curious about who Kate was and how she developed a citation style? Learn more about on the University of Chicago Press site.


Turabian Overview

What is Turabian?
Turabian is the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) designed for high school and college students that need to write papers that are not intended for publication. Both Turabian and CMOS are official Chicago styles.
Who uses Turabian?
Turabian is used by the humanities, social and natural sciences. There are two citation methods within Turabian style which includes the traditional method of footnotes with a bibliography and the method of parenthetical references with a reference list at the end of the paper. Ask your professor which Turabian method is required for their class


Why do I need to use Turabian?

There are several important reasons to document your outside sources:

  • Avoid plagiarism
  • Demonstrate academic honesty and courtesy for the work of others
  • Allow readers to learn more about the topic
  • Build credibility for your work as you are citing experts to support your arguments
  • Allow others to conduct further research based on your work
Whether you choose to use a direct quotation or merely paraphrase someone else's idea, you must cite any idea that did not come from you. This includes but is not limited to text, images, computer code and charts.
Remember when in doubt, cite it!

Differences Between Chicago and Turabian Style

Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) and Turabian Style citations differ in the numbering of their notes.

In Turabian Style citations, a superscript 1 is used for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

In CMOS citations, the in-text numbering is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period. Within the footnote, it is the number followed by a period.

Turabian synthesizes the rules most important for student papers and other scholarly research not intended for publication, and omits some of the publishing details and options that CMOS provides.