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Prof. Fletcher-APA 7 Tips


  • Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the organization.

  • (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available, but may be only the year. If there is no date use (n.d.).

  • Title of page or section. Note: Italicize the title of the page.

  • Source. Note: If the source is different from the author as organization, list it here.

  • URL


National Ocean Service. (n.d.). Is sea level rising? National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). About NOAA weather

Format of Group Author Names (Publication Manual (7th ed.) Sections 9.7–9.11)

  • When multiple government agencies are listed on a work, use the most specific agency as the author. Include the broader bureau or department of which the agency is a part in the source.


National Institute of Nursing Research. (2015). A family’s perspective: Pediatric palliative care stories (NIH Publication No.

15-NR-8018). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

If the interview was published in a retrievable source (e.g. a website, journalnewspaper, or book), follow the usual citation format for that type of source.


National Bureau of Asian Research. (2013, August 12). India's water crisis causes and cures: Interview  with Kirit S.


Newspaper Article (pp. 200-201)
General Format
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
(Author Surname, Year)
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(Author Surname, Year, page number)
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper Title, page range. URL 

Example 1

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Wallace, 2007)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Wallace, 2007, p. A8)


Wallace, K. (2007, December 4). Passport applicant finds massive privacy breach. The Globe and Mail, pp. A1, A8.

Example 2

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Mettler, 2019) 

In-Text Citation (Quotation:

(Mettler, 2019)


Mettler, K. (2019, February 25). An iceberg twice the size of New York City is about to break off of Antarctica. The Washington Post.
Reference examples
Image on a website with a government agency group author

Agency or Group Author(s). (Year image was created).Title of work [Type of work]. Title of the Website. URL address of  website


NURC/UNCW, & NOAA/FGBNMS. (n.d.). Brown bulbous sponge [Photograph]. NOAA Photo Library.


Brown bulbous sponge photo



Image on a website with an individual author

Author, B. B.(Year image was created).Title of work [Type of work]. Title of the Website. URL address of website


Doug, K. (n.d.). Fish swimming over the monitor [Photograph]. NOAA Photo Library.


Fish swimming over the MONITOR PHOTO

(Doug, n.d.)


Image on a website with No Author
Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Title of the Website. URL address of website


Archaeologist examining the area under the monitor's armor belt [Photograph]. (n.d.). NOAA Photo Library.

Archaeologist Photo

(Archaeologist, n.d.)

Order of work with the same author and same date APA 7 p.305

  • The letter format for references with years is 2020a, 2020b
  • The letter format with references with no date is (n.d.-a), (n.d.-b)

  • The references are alphabetized by title of the image to determine which is “a” and which is “b.”


Natural Resources Conservation Service. (NRCS). (n.d.-a). Demopolis soil [Image]. United States Department of

     Agriculture. https://www.nrcs.usda.go/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/office/ssr7/profile/?cid=nrcs142p2_047960

Natural Resources Conservation Service. (NRCS). (n.d.-b). Soil profile gallery [Image]. United States Department of


       example in text-citation of soil images

How to cite an article from Natural Resources Conservation Service website


Thorson, T., McGrath, C., & Magenheimer, S. (2011). Jory soil selected as Oregon’s official state soil. Natural Resources

     Conservation Service

How to cite an image from Natural Resources Conservation Service website

Chip, C. (2006). Bama [Photograph]. Natural Resources Conservation Service.



Fein, J. S. (2019). Monsoon meteorology. In AccessScience. McGraw-Hill Education.